3rd September, 2010
Diabetes Mellitus, often simply referred to as diabetes, is a condition in which a person hasÂ high blood sugar, either because the body does not produce enough insulin or because cells doÂ not respond to the insulin that is produced.
This high blood sugar produces the classical symptoms of polyuria (frequent urination),Â polydipsia (increased thirst) and polyphagia (increased hunger).
Types Of Diabetes
Type 1: Results from the bodyâ€™s failure to produce insulin and presently requires the person toÂ inject insulin.
Type 2: Results from insulin resistance, a condition in which cells fail to use insulinÂ properly.
Gestational diabetes: This is when pregnant women, who have never had diabetes before, have aÂ high blood glucose level during pregnancy. Gestational diabetes usually resolves afterÂ delivery. Diabetes without proper treatments can cause many complications.
Signs And Symptoms
Polyuria (frequent urination), polydipsia (increased thirst) and polyphagia (increased hunger).Â Weakness, internal heat, loss of sensation in parts of the body, abnormal feelings on theÂ palms, soles and all over the body. Blurred vision, skin rashes; Ketoacidosis, a state ofÂ metabolic dysregulation characterized by the smell of acetone; a rapid, deep breathing known asÂ Kussmaul breathing; nausea; vomiting and abdominal pain and an altered state of consciousnessÂ or unconsciousness
TypeÂ 1 diabetes is also partly inherited and then triggered by certain infections. TypeÂ 2Â diabetes is due primarily to lifestyle factors like diets, alcohol, sedentary lifestyle andÂ genetics. Gestational diabetes (GDM) is caused by pregnancy.
Urinalysis: Urine analysis will show presence of sugar in the urine.
Blood glucose: Fasting blood sugar and random blood sugar.
â€¢Fasting plasma glucose level eÂ 7.0Â mmol/L (126Â mg/dL); Plasma glucose eâ€Â 11.1Â mmol/LÂ (200Â mg/dL) two hours after a 75g oral glucose load as in a glucose tolerance test
â€¢Symptoms of hyperglycaemia and casual plasma glucose eâ€Â 11.1Â mmol/L 200)
Diabetes mellitus is a chronic disease which is difficult to cure. Management concentrates onÂ keeping blood sugar levels as close to normal â€œeuglycemiaâ€ as possible without presenting undueÂ patient danger.
Peer support (Links with people living with diabetes): Within peer support, people with commonÂ illness share knowledge and experience.
Diet:This can usually be with close dietary management and exercise with the goal of keepingÂ both short-term and long-term blood glucose levels. Glucometer: A person with diabetes may buyÂ a glucose metre to check the levels regularly and monitor response to medications.
Use of appropriate medications with insulin only in the case of type 1 diabetes mellitus. OralÂ hypoglycaemic medications may be used in the case of type 2 diabetes as well as insulin.Â Patients with foot problems are also recommended to wear diabetic socks and possibly diabeticÂ shoes.
Regular exercise (avoid sedentary lifestyle), weight reduction, avoid alcohol and smoking,Â dietary control.