Diabetes Mellitus


Diabetes Mellitus, often simply referred to as diabetes, is a condition in which a person has  high blood sugar, either because the body does not produce enough insulin or because cells do  not respond to the insulin that is produced.

This high blood sugar produces the classical symptoms of polyuria (frequent urination),  polydipsia (increased thirst) and polyphagia (increased hunger).

Types Of Diabetes
Type 1: Results from the body’s failure to produce insulin and presently requires the person to  inject insulin.
Type 2: Results from insulin resistance, a condition in which cells fail to use insulin  properly.
Gestational diabetes: This is when pregnant women, who have never had diabetes before, have a  high blood glucose level during pregnancy. Gestational diabetes usually resolves after  delivery. Diabetes without proper treatments can cause many complications.

Signs And Symptoms
Polyuria (frequent urination), polydipsia (increased thirst) and polyphagia (increased hunger).  Weakness, internal heat, loss of sensation in parts of the body, abnormal feelings on the  palms, soles and all over the body. Blurred vision, skin rashes; Ketoacidosis, a state of  metabolic dysregulation characterized by the smell of acetone; a rapid, deep breathing known as  Kussmaul breathing; nausea; vomiting and abdominal pain and an altered state of consciousness  or unconsciousness

Type 1 diabetes is also partly inherited and then triggered by certain infections. Type 2  diabetes is due primarily to lifestyle factors like diets, alcohol, sedentary lifestyle and  genetics. Gestational diabetes (GDM) is caused by pregnancy.

Laboratory Tests
Urinalysis: Urine analysis will show presence of sugar in the urine.
Blood glucose: Fasting blood sugar and random blood sugar.
•Fasting plasma glucose level e 7.0 mmol/L (126 mg/dL); Plasma glucose e” 11.1 mmol/L  (200 mg/dL) two hours after a 75g oral glucose load as in a glucose tolerance test
•Symptoms of hyperglycaemia and casual plasma glucose e” 11.1 mmol/L 200)

Diabetes mellitus is a chronic disease which is difficult to cure. Management concentrates on  keeping blood sugar levels as close to normal “euglycemia” as possible without presenting undue  patient danger.

Supportive treatment
Peer support (Links with people living with diabetes): Within peer support, people with common  illness share knowledge and experience.
Diet:This can usually be with close dietary management and exercise with the goal of keeping  both short-term and long-term blood glucose levels. Glucometer: A person with diabetes may buy  a glucose metre to check the levels regularly and monitor response to medications.

Specific Treatment
Use of appropriate medications with insulin only in the case of type 1 diabetes mellitus. Oral  hypoglycaemic medications may be used in the case of type 2 diabetes as well as insulin.  Patients with foot problems are also recommended to wear diabetic socks and possibly diabetic  shoes.

Regular exercise (avoid sedentary lifestyle), weight reduction, avoid alcohol and smoking,  dietary control.

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